FFA FISHERIES TRADE NEWS Volume 5: Issue 3 May-June 2012

FFA FISHERIES TRADE NEWS  Volume 5: Issue 3   May-June 2012

By Elizabeth Havice and Liam Campling[1]


Special Report

Industry, Government and NGOs meet in Bangkok for Tuna 2012

Fisheries Management

Tokelau joins PNA’s Vessel Day Scheme

Kiribati renews Fisheries Partnership Agreement with EU

Fisheries Development

China steps up cooperation with PNA 

Special Report

Industry, Government and NGOs meet in Bangkok for Tuna 2012

May 2012 saw the biannual INFOFISH tuna gathering, which drew a record breaking crowd of industry, government and NGOs to Bangkok to get updated on the state of the sector and to conduct business. Over three days, a wide range of topics reflecting the current conditions in the industry were presented and debated by participants. The following highlights several of the more important themes and issues raised at the conference.

Skipjack Prices

At the top of all participants’ minds were the record-breaking skipjack prices, prices that since the conference have shown no sign of abating and are threatening to reach $2,500/mt. Discussions centred on the ways that unprecedented high raw material prices are impacting various dimensions of the sector. On the one hand, fishing fleets have benefitted, a welcome relief after soaring fuel costs eroded bottom lines in recent years. This has also benefited the PNA countries in their negotiations with fishing interests over the value of fishing days under the Vessel Day Scheme. 

Processors, on the other hand, expressed concern over high raw material costs, especially in an economic climate still reeling from global recession and where consumers are unlikely to easily absorb price increases. Thai processors, in particular, suggested that high raw material prices were painful since Thai firms are not vertically integrated into fishing, nor does Thailand have a national fleet. Thai industry staved off as much damage as possible by increasing exports to new markets by 45 percent from 2010-2011.[2] All processors have taken steps to remain competitive (see below), including introducing cost saving measures, increasing production volume, and changing pricing as much as possible to improve margins. Processing firms also identified that value added products and quality improvements have been key to improving margins in the face of high raw material prices.

Speakers also noted that tuna prices are likely to have food security impacts in developing countries where historically high consumption (either of fresh or canned product) might be slowed by price hikes in products.[3] Speculation abounded over whether the price hike is temporary or signals the beginning of a ‘new normal’ to which industry and consumers will need to make permanent market adjustments.

Sector-wide Trends

Industry actors from around the globe highlighted the potential for broad growth in established and new markets. The rational for this potential centres on growing global population that is, or will be, seeking access to healthy animal protein products. In mature markets in North America and Europe, firms are focusing on tapping into growth potentials that match with demographic trends: the shift towards urbanized populations, growing numbers of dual income or single parent families and aging populations, all of which want healthy lifestyles and convenience. Emerging markets in Chile, China, Mexico, Thailand and the Middle East (among other places) currently have low consumption per capita, but uptake, new processing and brand investment is growing. Marketing efforts in new markets also focus on health, wellness and convenience. In all markets, industry is emphasizing value added products and compliance with quality and safety standards. Bilateral and macro-regional free trade agreements will be central in promoting growth, though changing market access considerations inevitably create winners and losers, particularly in the processing segment of the production chain.

Despite optimism over growth potential, the mismatch between processing capacity and resource availability remains a concern in the sector. Such concern is intensifying as new plants come online, investments are promised in the Pacific region, potential processing capacity in emerging economies looms large, and industry notes that fish from the WCPO is at times transported to the Eastern Pacific to stave off supply shortages in the Latin American processing facilities. Industry is grappling with how the sector will face the reality of decreasing quantity of raw material even as pressure to increase volume to enhance profitability mounts.

Consolidation is another key dynamic in the sector.[4] Key players are emerging through mergers and acquisitions as regional companies develop strategies to become global. Recent examples include Thai Union’s purchase of MW Brands, Dongwon’s purchase of StarKist and, most recently, Bolton’s purchase of Calvo after speculation that Dongwon was planning to scoop up a 50 percent share in the Spanish firm. Private equity firms have expressed interest in owning highly visible brands, as was the case in Lion Capital’s acquisition of Bumble Bee Foods. As the sector continues to consolidate, it is clear that firms are looking to expand their global reach to diversify their production and marketing strategies and minimize risk (including in some cases by vertically integrating into fishing). For example, brand diversification can cushion against regional market dips and sourcing across the ‘global ocean’ can help absorb regional shocks in raw material supply. Recent years have seen less than ten mergers and acquisitions annually, with transformational deals taking place every several years, a pace of consolidation that analysts expect will continue as strategic players, including financial interests, make acquisitions. Industry should also expect China to become more active in future mergers and acquisitions.

Resource Management and Sustainability Trends

Sustainability and resource availability dynamics is a sector-wide preoccupation. Overall, sustainability debates are couched in discussion of ‘sound science’ and industry, regulatory bodies, governments and NGOs emphasize the need to invest in science and develop regulations around scientific starting points. Recently, new modes of regulation designed to move towards ‘sustainabilty’ in the sector have emerged; however, commentators noted a need to eliminate obsolete regulations and introduce and innovate new regulations where necessary. While sustainability considerations were present throughout the conference, they were most evident in the sessions reviewing RFMO activities, debating environmentally sensitive gear types and fishing methods, and presenting the progress of the most common ecolabels in the sector. We treat each in turn.

RFMO updates: Each RFMO reported on progress and management debates in its ocean region. WCPFC officials emphasized continued concern over bigeye and yellowfin populations, and indicated that it is likely that the WCPFC will be turning its attention to the rapid increase in effort on the Southern Albacore population.[5] The need for a shark plan that includes data collection, stock assessment, an integrated management plan and improvement in data collection and social relations in the observer programme were also emphasized. WCPFC officials emphasized the need for better partnerships between RFMOs, the scientific community, industry and NGOs. Noting that companies – not countries – engage in fishing, the question was asked if regulating flags will remain relevant in the future. The RFMO suggested that regulatory bodies will need to find ways to effectively manage multinational corporations that operate across flags, oceans and industry segments. The WCPFC welcomed strong tuna fishing industry associations that can communicate effectively with RFMOs.

In the zone regulated by the IOTC, the fishery was described as ‘stable’, but piracy was highlighted as a continued problem for the high seas and coastal fisheries with particular hardship felt in the longline fleet.[6] IOTC has been encouraged by increased NGO participation in management decision making. The RFMO continues to work towards adopting the precautionary approach, but highlighted that compliance and weak implementation remain major challenges, as do finding effective ways to integrate the large semi-industrial and artisanal fisheries of the Indian Ocean into management processes. 

IATTC emphasized that the close links between coastal states and fishing and processing activities enable the RFMO to manage very directly.[7] IATTC’s regulatory highlights include the annual mandatory 62 day fishing closure and the requirement that purse seines retain all tuna catch. Bigeye mortality remains a concern in the Eastern Pacific Ocean, mostly because of its association with catch of skipjack, the population of which is healthy. Overall, IATTC officials suggested that fishing capacity is the main problem for achieving management goals and highlighted that new companies seek to enter the fishery because of the high price of fish. This dynamic will further increase carrying capacity and sustainability challenges if it is not curbed.

Across oceans, considerable emphasis is being placed on developing tactics for shifting towards rights based management. Examples included IOTC’s continued debate over and efforts to develop incentives and mechanisms to establish and allocate catch limits or quotas, and the PNA countries’ claim that VDS has been the most transformative regulatory agent in tuna fisheries in recent years. PNA officials defined VDS as a rights based instrument that has strengthened resource owners’ negotiating power, created a market and  set sustainability targets by setting limits on total allowable effort.[8] Building on this momentum, FAO and GEF announced a multi-year, multi-million dollar ‘global partnership’ project, a centre piece of which is developing rights based management pilot projects aimed at improving sustainable management.[9] The project is currently in formulation phase and implementation is expected to begin in late 2012.

Environmentally sensitive fishing gears and methods: Participants debated FAD-free and pole and line fishing. The ISSF Scientific Committee reviewed data establishing that FAD sets do increase juvenile tuna catch, especially very small tunas, and that catching small tunas can be harmful, especially for bigeye and yellowfin species.[10] The presentation highlighted that bycatch in floating object sets is three to seven times higher than free school sets and that floating object sets can be problematic for shark populations. But it also pointed out that these bycatch rates are not worse than in other fisheries. Greenpeace highlighted increasing fishing capacity and efficiency (including from technological innovation, such as the use of FADs) as a key driver of sustainability problems and suggested that non-FAD and pole and line fishing can be a part of the solution, the latter of which must be paired with sustainable bait fisheries management.[11] 

A recent new development in this debate, and a direct response to unmet retailer demand for pole and line-caught tuna, is the establishment of the International Pole and Line Foundation, an organization devoted to developing common standards in pole and line fishing and to providing assistance in expanding pole and line fishing efforts.[12] The Foundation’s work programme includes research on live bait fisheries, improving fuel efficiency of pole and line vessels, and extending economic development opportunities to pole and line fishing sectors, including by coordinating market access and compliance with food quality requirements. Though the FAD fishing and pole and line debate has been generally viewed as polarizing, the presentations left conference participants with a sense that, while environmentally sensitive gear types have a place in the sector broadly and in sustainability debates more specifically, they are not a panacea, not least because of high cost under current market dynamics. The economic constraints of non-FAD fishing are a particular concern for fleets interested in supplying outlets interested in free-school, MSC certified tuna products.

Ecolabel update: Conference panels confirmed that environmental sustainability requirements, including certification and labeling, is a growing reality, and in some cases, a commercial requirement – particularly in mature tuna markets. RFMO officials indicated that ecolabel certification processes and associated requirements can aid RFMOs with management and data collection. But other commentators warned that a major challenge for certification organizations is to establish and maintain credibility with resource managers, industry, scientists and consumers. Commentators also raised concerns that rapidly growing demand for product in emerging markets can provide easy outlets for IUU or otherwise unsustainably caught fish and that these markets may be slower to require assurances of sustainability. Other general sustainability and certification challenges include confusion in the marketplace over the proliferation of multiple competing claims and labels, and the lack of price premiums for ‘sustainable’ seafood for fisheries that might have had to undergo costly certification processes. 

Conference presenters and participants also debated which eco-label will be dominant in the market for tuna products, with MSC and Friend of the Sea being the frontrunners and Earth Island Institute emphasizing the lasting relevance of its dolphin-safe label in the marketplace.[13] Participants drew attention to Pacifical’s (the PNA’s marketing arm) control over the new PNA MSC certification and asked for clarification about how Pacifical will extend the certificate to industry members. Pacifical indicated that the PNA will use the certificate to link tuna products to the Pacific region to create economic opportunity. Pacifical and Friend of the Sea sparred over the relative strength and legitimacy of their certifications, suggesting that the debate will persist as industry groups (including retailers committing to sustainable seafood procurement targets) make measured choices about which certification scheme to participate in, if any. 

In addition to these, a notable dimension of the sustainability debate is that the International Seafood Sustainability Foundation (ISSF) – a collaboration between processing and trading firms and environmental NGO WWF – has emerged as a very important actor. Policy makers regularly emphasized the importance of having industry participation and leadership in sustainability debates and ISSF continued to extend its influence in debates by presenting its activities and science-based assessments and recommendations. In short, ISSF has permeated multiple dimensions of the resource management and sustainability trends outlined above, as has been reported in several recent issues of Fisheries Trade News.

Status of Regional Production, Markets and Products

Experts offered updates on the status of production and markets in several regions. Analyses highlighted several similarities and differences between mature and emerging markets. 

Europe:[14] The European market is very complex since it is organized around multiple categories including: raw material for canning, canned tuna, sashimi, and specialty products. Sashimi markets were reported to have declined and been impacted by the recession. Imports of loins to Italy have declined in recent years, while loin imports to Spain have been roughly stable since 2009. Overall, canned tuna production in the EU is declining, a response to high labour and production costs: total canned production was 340,000 tonnes in 2009, down from 400,000 tonnes in 2002. Thailand is the major canned tuna producing country exporting to the EU and its role in this market has been growing. In response to these dynamics, EU industry continues to lobby for policy protections, particularly against further liberalization and relaxation of rules of origin in EPAs (e.g. the ‘global sourcing’ exception for PNG). 

The economic crisis appears to have had a positive impact on canned tuna consumption in the EU, though firms have attempted to enhance profitability in the face of high raw material prices by reducing product promotions. In fact, canned tuna prices have increased sharply in recent months, more so than in the extremely price-sensitive US market. Overall, canned tuna consumption and demand are expected to grow across the EU, but it is predicted that resource constraints will lead to higher prices in coming years. Further, projections suggest that fresh and frozen tuna consumption will expand in Western Europe (for example at sushi bars), and that higher demand and prices for sashimi-grade tuna will impact supply and prices for the canning sector. Commentators highlighted that debt financed by troubled EU banks present a threat for the EU industry.

Japan:[15] The Japanese tuna sector was greatly impacted by the 2011 tsunami, which damaged fishing boats, ports and processing plants. Since then, capture fisheries production, processing and export volumes declined sharply while imports rose. High raw material prices have further eroded demand and consumers in Japan have sought alternative food products. Like others in the processed tuna sector, Japanese industry has highlighted the disparity between high raw material costs and low product prices in retail outlets. On the fishing side of the spectrum, the purse seining industry association Kaimaki highlighted its contribution to conservation: the fleet has reduced bigeye mortality by 50 percent by reducing FAD fishing.

US:[16] To reinvigorate the generally flat market, the three major brands teamed up for the first time in an industry-wide campaign, ‘Tuna the Wonderfish’. Industry deemed the campaign moderately successful, but pulled it short because of the cost of fish and ‘other political battles’. Total value of canned tuna sales have increased 24% from USD 1.4 billion in 2006 to USD 1.75 billion in the last 12 months, though sales volume has dropped two percent in the same time period. Industry attributes the drop in volume to escalating costs. Reflecting high raw material prices, in retail grocery outlets, the prices of albacore cans is up 10.3 percent and lightmeat is up 17.1 percent over the last 12 months. Household penetration of canned tuna has declined to below 66% of households, and people under 35 are eating less canned tuna. The sector sees an opportunity to tap into the under-35 market by emphasizing health attributes, value and convenience of canned tuna. Overall, Starkist is leading branded sales (35% of value in category), followed by BumbleBee (27.8%) and Chicken of the Sea (19.4%). Relative to other markets, private label is underdeveloped, accounting for 16.8% of sales.

In the US market for non-canned tuna there is a wide range of value-added packaging varieties and products used for food service, including CO treated product.17 Compliance with the multiple sets of standards that are required by government and, increasingly, retailers and food service providers is a major preoccupation of this market segment. In some cases, compliance has required sourcing from new fisheries and finding outlets for products that do not comply with retailer requirements. A second major development is that the US market is making progress in moving into super frozen product: shipping firms have begun to integrate -60˚C containers and some US retailers are extending the cold chain into outlets. Industry welcomes the change in order to smooth supply and overcome food safety issues associated with perishability.

Thailand:[18] As noted above, Thailand is the world’s leading location of canned tuna production, though Thai industry representatives note two important constraints: high raw material prices and increasing wages. To cope, firms are increasing volume, looking for value added opportunities, and mechanizing production to enhance competitiveness. Further, firms are focusing on canning, rather than loining, the latter of which is more costly because it is labour intensive. Commentators noted that at least one Thai firm has proposed processing investments in PNG to secure resource access, and that other processing areas should expect future opportunities to export loins to Thailand for canning. Though presentations indicated that the Thai consumer market is likely to grow, the most important trend in the Thai sector was concern over the availability and high price of raw material. Finally, Thai industry noted that is it now an imperative to cooperate with NGOs and RFMOs to promote sustainability related policies, indicating that since customers require that processors cooperate with these organizations that industry will do its best to comply. 

Latin America:[19] In contrast with North American markets, industry and investors view Latin America as a region poised for significant growth. Since the 2007-8 recession, canned tuna markets have been stable and industry projects steady annual growth of 3.8 percent for the next several years. Peru and Colombia are the fastest growing markets, while Ecuador and Costa Rica have the highest per capita consumption. Processing giant Ecuador is the primary supplier in the region, though Thailand has made inroads into markets in Argentina, Chile and Brazil. 

Responding to and driving market growth, Spanish players including Jealsa and Calvo continue to arrive in Latin America, applying regional strategies and customized business models to tap into specific market segments. Notably, in some cases, Spanish investments that were originally planned to supply loins for Spanish canneries now supply Latin American markets with canned product. In general, marketing is focused on the health and convenience attributes that shelf stable tuna products offer to time-pressed, health conscious consumers. Market growth is also emerging around quality and value added products such as flavoured and ready to eat meals and packaging innovations. Sales are growing faster in discount stores and supermarkets relative to sales in smaller neighbourhood shops. Overall, Latin America is seen as a tremendous growth opportunity.  

Other Asia and Middle East:[20] Updates for these two markets were quite general and data were not differentiated in detail. General trends suggest that Asia, the Middle East and North Africa have steadily increased canned tuna imports; however, demand for other high value seafood products is growing much faster. China is reported to be increasing imports for reprocessing, but imports for domestic consumption are comparatively small. Commentators suggested that China and India will continue to grow and eventually become significant retail markets, including for tuna. Tuna markets in the Middle East were volatile during  and after the Arab Spring. Given growing interest in dynamics in these important emerging economies, there is a need for far more detailed analysis of market dynamics.

Canada:[21] Overall, seafood consumption is increasing across most demographic segments in Canada, but canned fish consumption is in decline. To reinvigorate sluggish category performance, Canadian brands plan to develop and market products to target key demographics: the aging population, one and two person households and new immigrant populations. To reach these groups, industry is focusing on health and wellness, creating smaller serving sizes and ready to eat, convenient products, building product awareness and introducing products that will appeal to new demographics. Despite declining consumption, Canada still represents three per cent of global canned tuna consumption and is the number two albacore market and number nine canned tuna market (by volume). Like the US market, though volume has declined, sales value has grown over seven percent annually over the last decade: growth in sales is shifting from conventional grocery to discount channels. There are, however, two sources of growth: private label (now 20 percent of sales) and value-added products (such as chilled tuna steaks, and ready to eat salads and sandwiches). The value of value-added shelf stable products has grew almost 350 percent between 2002 and the present. Household penetration of light meat shelf stable products continues to hover around 55 percent, while white meat penetration increased from 12.9 percent in 2002 to 21.7 percent today. 

Fisheries Management

Tokelau joins PNA’s Vessel Day Scheme

On 1 May 2012, Tokelau signed an agreement with the Parties to the Nauru Agreement (PNA) to join the purse seine Vessel Day Scheme (VDS). Given Tokelau’s small size, remote location and lack of infrastructure, its ability to develop its own large-scale tuna fishing, processing and marketing sectors is constrained. In recognising these limitations, Tokelau intends to focus on maximising the economic benefits associated with being a tuna resource owner, and in doing so, will work alongside PNA members in implementing the VDS.[22]  Tokelau currently maintains a bilateral access arrangement with New Zealand’s purse seine fleet (4 vessels).  Forty US purse seine vessels also have access to Tokelau’s waters under the US Multilateral Tuna Treaty.  The highest recorded purse seine catch in Tokelau’s EEZ during the past ten years was 6,000 mt (350 purse seine fishing days) in 2002.[23] 

Kiribati renews Fisheries Partnership Agreement with EU

Kiribati and the European Union (EU) have initialled a new protocol to the Fisheries Partnership Agreement (FPA), which provides continued access for four EU purse seiners and six longliners to Kiribati’s EEZ and replaces the current Protocol which is due to expire on 16 September 2012.[24]  Under the new Protocol, the annual financial contribution from the EU is € 1,325,000 for a reference tonnage of 15,000 mt.  This is a considerable increase on the financial contribution provided under the previous Protocol of € 478,400, however, the reference tonnage has also more than doubled from 6,400 mt.  The number of vessels covered under the new agreement remains the same.  A standard feature of Fisheries Partnership Agreements is the ear-marking of a certain proportion of the financial contribution for sectoral policy support.  € 350,000 of the financial contribution will be used by Kiribati for the promotion of responsible and sustainable fishing in its waters.  

Kiribati was the first Pacific Island country to establish a fishing agreement with the EU (in 2003).  Since this time, the EU has also established FPAs with Solomon Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia, however, the fishing opportunities offered under these agreements are far less utilised than those under the Kiribati agreement.  While the EU-Kiribati FPA covers both purse seine and longline vessels, fishing opportunities offered to longline vessels are yet to be taken up.  The EU longline fleet operating in the WCPO generally fishes in southern waters and targets swordfish, rather than tuna. 

It is currently unclear whether the new Protocol incorporates the Vessel Day Scheme (VDS) for the purse seine vessels. The prior Protocol did not include provisions on VDS, hence, unlike other bilateral fishing partners, EU purse seine vessels have not been subject to a limit on fishing days.  

Solomon Islands is also due to renegotiate a new Protocol with the EU in the coming few months.   

Fisheries Development

China steps up cooperation with PNA 

 At the 7th PNA Ministerial Meeting held in Alotau, PNG in early May, China extended an offer to PNA members for enhanced cooperation in the areas of market access, domestic development and fisheries science.  In a keynote speech delivered by Mr. Xiaobing Liu, representing China Fisheries Bureau, it was highlighted that the Chinese tuna fleet has already contributed an estimated US $ 30 million to PNA countries to date.  Notable Chinese investments include a loining plant in Marshall Islands (Pan Pacific Foods (RMI) Ltd.) by Shanghai Kaichuan Fishing Company (US$ 10 million) and the establishment of a value-added frozen tuna processing facility in Lae, PNG through grant aid.  China Exim Bank has also offered a concessional soft loan of US $74 million to fund infrastructure development for the Pacific Marine Industrial Zone (PMIZ) in Madang, PNG.  In addition, Zhejiang Zhenyang Group (Halisheng) plans to establish a tuna processing plant in Lae, PNG (up to US $25 million).  China has indicated it is prepared to work with PNA members to explore possible market access concessions, opportunities for domestic development including catch landings and onshore investment, as well as cooperation in fisheries science and management in the form of scientific trials, stock assessments, development studies and training.[25] 

China is the newest distant water fishing entrant to the WCPO purse seine fishery, commencing operations in 2001 with one vessel.  The fleet has since grown to 16 vessels – 12 of which operate under Chinese-flag and 4 under PNA flags (3 – Marshall Islands, 1 – FSM).  The offer extended by China to PNA members for enhanced cooperation would likely represent an effort to maintain or increase access to PNA members’ waters, given PNA’s commitment to offer fisheries access to those distant water fishing partners who contribute to PNA members’ domestic tuna industry development.  

1 Prepared for the FFA Fisheries Development Division by Liam Campling, Consultant Fisheries Trade Analyst, FFA and School of Business and Management, Queen Mary, University of London and Elizabeth Havice, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Desktop publishing by Antony Price. The authors would like to thank Hugh Walton for his input on an earlier draft of this briefing. The contents of this briefing (including all analysis and opinions) are the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the positions or thinking of the FFA Secretariat or its Members.

2 Chanintr Chalisarapong 2012, ‘Thai Tuna Industry: The New Challenges’, Presented at the 12th Annual INFOFISH Tuna Conference. May 23-5. Bangkok, Thailand.

3 Fatima Ferdouse 2012, ‘Tuna Trade in Asia’, Presented at the 12th Annual INFOFISH Tuna Conference. May 23-5. Bangkok, Thailand.

4 Grant Lin 2012, ‘Global M&A Trends and Implications for the Tuna Industry’, Presented at the 12th Annual INFOFISH Tuna Conference. May 23-5. Bangkok, Thailand.

5 Glenn Hurry 2012, ‘Review of the Effectiveness of Conservation and Management Measures for Tuna in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean (WCPO)’, Presented at the 12th Annual INFOFISH Tuna Conference. May 23-5. Bangkok, Thailand. 

6 Alejandro Anganuzzi 2012, ‘Recent Advances in IOTC: Moving Forward in the Indian Ocean’, Presented at the 12th Annual INFOFISH Tuna Conference. May 23-5. Bangkok, Thailand.

7 Guillermo Compean 2012, ‘Sustainability of Tuna Resources in the EPO’, Presented at the 12th Annual INFOFISH Tuna Conference. May 23-5. Bangkok, Thailand.

8 Transform Aqorau and Nanette Malsol 2012, ‘Impact of PNA Measures on Global Tuna Market: Managing Production or Creating Scarcity, Opportunities for Strategic Partnerships’, Presented at the 12th Annual INFOFISH Tuna Conference. May 23-5. Bangkok, Thailand.

9 Francis Chopin, Jacek Majkowski and Helga Josupeit 2012, ‘The FAO-GEF Global Partnership Project for Sustainable Management of Tuna Fisheries and Biodiversity Conservation’, Presented at the 12th Annual INFOFISH Tuna Conference. May 23-5. Bangkok, Thailand.

10 Victor R. Restrepo 2012, ‘Informing the Discussion on Pole-and-Line and Fad-Free Tuna’, Presented at the 12th Annual INFOFISH Tuna Conference. May 23-5. Bangkok, Thailand.

11 Sari Tolvanen 2012, ‘Greenpeace’s View on Pole & Line and Non-FAD Tuna Fishing Policy’, Presented at the 12th Annual INFOFISH Tuna Conference. May 23-5. Bangkok, Thailand.

12 M. Shiham Adam 2012, ‘Developing Pole-And-Line Fisheries in a Sustainable and Responsible Way to the Benefit of Coastal Communities Worldwide’, Presented at the 12th Annual INFOFISH Tuna Conference. May 23-5. Bangkok, Thailand.

13 Bill Holden 2012, ‘MSC Certification for the Global Tuna Industry’; Henk Brus 2012, ‘Ecolabels and the European Market’; Mark Berman 2012, ‘The Truth about Tuna’; Paolo Bray 2012, ‘Friend of the Sea (FOS) Eco-Label: It’s Contribution Towards Sustainable Tuna Industry’; William Emerson 2012, ‘ FAO and Ecolabels’. All presented at the 12th Annual INFOFISH Tuna Conference. May 23-5. Bangkok, Thailand.

14 Helga Josupeit 2012, ‘Is There Still Volume Growth in the European Tuna Market? With Special Reference to the Present Crisis’; Juan M. Vietas Baptista de Sousa 2012, ‘The EU Tuna Industry: Challenges and Prospects’; Luis Molledo 2012, ‘ The European Union: Markets, Trade and Sustainability’. All presented at the 12th Annual INFOFISH Tuna Conference. May 23-5. Bangkok, Thailand; 

15 Akira Nakame 2012, ‘Post Tsunami Tuna Trade/Market in Japan’, Presented at the 12th Annual INFOFISH Tuna Conference. May 23-5. Bangkok, Thailand.

16 Dave Melbourne 2012, ‘U.S. Retail Market Overview’, Presented at the 12th Annual INFOFISH Tuna Conference. May 23-5. Bangkok, Thailand.

17 Mike Walsh 2012, ‘The U.S. Non-Canned Tuna Market’, Presented at the 12th Annual INFOFISH Tuna Conference. May 23-5. Bangkok, Thailand.

18 Chanintr Chalisarapong 2012, ‘ Thai Tuna Industry: The New Challenges’, Presented at the 12th Annual INFOFISH Tuna Conference. May 23-5. Bangkok, Thailand.

19 Dario Chemerinksi 2012, ‘Latin America’s Potential as a Major Tuna Bloc: Challenges and Dynamics’, Presented at the 12th Annual INFOFISH Tuna Conference. May 23-5. Bangkok, Thailand.

20 Fatima Ferdouse 2012, ‘Tuna trade in Asia’; Ziad Abdel Rahim 2012, ‘ Middle East Insights’. Both presented at the 12th Annual INFOFISH Tuna Conference. May 23-5. Bangkok, Thailand.

21 Ron Schlinder 2012, ‘Canadian Market for Ambient Seafood & Tuna’, Presented at the 12th Annual INFOFISH Tuna Conference. May 23-5. Bangkok, Thailand.

22 PNAO 2012, ‘Tokelau joins the highly successful PNA Vessel Day Scheme’, PNA, 1 May.  Available at: http://www.pnatuna.com

23 WCPFC 2012, Annual Report to the Commission – Tokelau, Scientific Committee Sixth Regular Session, 10-19 August, Tonga.  Available at:  http://www.wcpfc.int

24 Maria Damanaki 2012, ‘New Protocol to the EU-Kiribati Fisheries Partnership Agreement Initialed’, EC Press Release, 6 June.  Available at: http://www.ec.europa.eu

25 Anouk Ride 2012, ‘China offers PNA market access, domestic development, assistance with fisheries science, PNA, 2 May. Available at: http://www.pnatuna.com.