FFA FISHERIES TRADE NEWS Volume 3: Issue 5 & 6 July-August 2010


Volume 3: Issue 7 & 8 July & August 2010

By Liam Campling, Amanda Hamilton and Elizabeth Havice[1]



Fisheries Trade-related Regulation

Rising protectionism in EU over seafood imports?

Fisheries Trade and Development

Tuna processing developments in Papua New Guinea

Fisheries Management and Development

Fisheries outcomes from Ministerial & Pacific Forum Leaders meetings

US and Pacific island countries continue negotiations for 2013 US Treaty renewal

Tuna Markets

MW Brands bought by Thai Union

Soltai recommences operations

American Samoa update – Starkist and Chicken of the Sea


Fisheries-Trade Related Regulation

Rising protectionism in EU over seafood imports?

The EU is increasingly reliant on imported fish to supply growing levels of consumption.[2] Several recent developments indicate a move to increasing protectionism by elements of the EU seafood sector (including the tuna industry) and its political supporters. At the European Parliament, a conservative Member, Alain Cadec, tabled a draft resolution to the Committee on Fisheries in May.[3] This led to an intense debate between protectionist and free trade interests in the Committee in Fisheries.[4] The press release on this Committee’s outcomes stated that the European industry was facing a ‘massive influx of imports in an environment of unfair competition’.[5]

The resulting resolution by the vast majority of members of the European Parliament contains a range of measures that can be interpreted as protectionist. These include calls for fishery products to be treated as ‘sensitive’ in WTO negotiations on industrial goods.[6] If the Doha Round is ever concluded, this demand is unlikely to be successful; however, if it were, it would be an important benefit to those PICs currently benefitting from preferential access to EU markets for tuna and other fish products. Yet the resolution also recommends that EU trade preferences ‘be made strictly conditional upon the fulfilment of stringent environmental and social requirements’, and if preference-receiving countries do not comply preferences should be suspended or withdrawn.[7]

However, the EU Fish Processors and Traders Association (AIPCE-CEP) is explicitly opposed to the resolution, arguing that the ‘outdated protectionist approach’ may result in ‘less variety of supply and higher prices’.[8] AIPCE-CEP members have a strong commercial interest in the current ‘reality of [a] strong reliance on imports’. It argues that measures that damage the flow of imports will be to the ‘detriment of the competitiveness of the EU processing industry’.

Importantly, with the implementation of the Lisbon Treaty the European Parliament has significantly increased powers. Beforehand it acted primarily in an advisory role and its resolutions could simply be ignored by the European Council (the leading decision-making institution in the EU). But now the Parliament is able to block draft legislation as it co-legislates with the Council, including on trade and fisheries policy. While this enhances democratic conditions within the institutional make-up of the EU, it adds an additional layer of political complexity for third countries in their future negotiations with the EU, such as the PACP’s comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement and in Fisheries Partnership Agreements.

In a connected development this July, Spain’s National Association of Canned Fish & Shellfish Manufacturers (Anfaco) called upon the EU Commissioner for Fisheries to protect the European canned tuna industry from ‘unfair’ competition from Thailand.[9] As evidence of this, Anfaco cites requests in the United States for an anti-dumping investigation on canned tuna imported from Thailand.[10] It also states that while European producers are compliant with regulatory requirements on the provision of sanitary certificates and product traceability, Southeast Asian exporters are not.

Finally, the European tuna industry continues to put pressure on the European Commission in relation to the Pacific’s ‘global sourcing’ rules of origin (RoO) under the Interim Economic Partnership Agreement (IEPA).[11] A recommendation from the Long Distance Fleet Regional Advisory Council (LDRAC) to the European Commission in June claims that the RoO may contribute to overfishing and that the EU should take care to ensure full implementation of the Regulation to prevent, deter and eliminate illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing in PIC waters. The LDRAC also aired its concern that investment by Southeast Asian firms in PNG will benefit these investors rather than locals as fish workers are paid such low wages.[12] In addition, the European Parliament resolution noted above insists ‘on the application of strict rules of origin based on the concept of "wholly obtained" products ... and demands that any new requests for derogations in respect of processed products be rejected’.[13] This does not mean that the current IEPA global sourcing RoO for canned tuna and tuna loins are under threat, but it does introduce an additional layer of complexity in negotiations for future reform of RoO, such as in PACP negotiations for a comprehensive EPA. However, as succinctly pointed out by Sylvester Pokajam (managing director of PNG’s National Fisheries Authority), increased investment in PNG ‘should not harm the Spanish industry because the same fish processed in Thailand, Philippines and elsewhere ... will be processed in PNG’.[14]


Fisheries Trade and Development

Tuna processing developments in Papua New Guinea

PNA countries have endeavoured to increase their economic returns from the tuna industry, including by encouraging tuna processing in Pacific island countries. So far, Papua New Guinea is the regional leader for tuna processing investments; indeed, in a recent interview, Sylvester Pokajam, MD of the National Fisheries Authority reiterated hopes that PNG will process 100 percent of the tuna caught in its waters within 10-15 years.[15] Several new domestic tuna developments are in progress in PNG in addition to the three operational plants in the country (South Seas Tuna Corporation, RD Tuna, and Frabelle Fishing Corporation).

PNG’s  Department of Commerce and Industry (DCI), the National Fisheries Authority and the Investment Promotion Authority are spearheading the development of the Pacific Marine Industrial Zone, a 200 hectare plot of land in Madang slated to be home to roughly 10 tuna processing plants, ancillary industry and supporting infrastructure (e.g., cold storage, vessel repair facilities, can-making facilities, workers’ settlements). Since the PMIZ groundbreaking ceremony in June 2009 the National Management Committee for the PMIZ (made up of government, industry and a community representative from Madang) awarded two contracts to firms for fencing and clearing of the PMIZ area, both of which are in progress.

To promote tuna processing in the PMIZ and beyond, PNG is working with the International Finance Corporation – a branch of the World Bank – to develop a ‘Special Economic Zone’ (SEZ) law. The SEZ will establish the legal framework to initiate multi-use, geographically delimited areas with conditions conducive to investment. Within such zones, the SEZ law creates a framework for supplying investment incentives, such as infrastructure, labour and streamlined business start-up facilities.[16] Originally conceived for the PMIZ, the SEZ law has been broadened to be applicable across the country and for sectors beyond those related to fisheries products. The IFC presented the first draft of the SEZ law to the Department of Commerce and Industry in August 2010 and there will be a workshop in mid-September when the law will be presented to stakeholders for feedback.[17]

However, progress on the PMIZ has been slower than both government and private investors would like. First, an independent study on the viability of special economic zones in PNG highlighted only Lae and Port Moresby, not Madang, as viable locations for such sites.[18] Second, the PNG government has been working for several months to secure a roughly concessional loan of around US$70 million from the Export Import Bank of China to be applied to PMIZ infrastructure development. Reportedly, the terms of the agreement have been set, but as of August 2010 the agreement had not been finalised.[19] Though the loan is reported to be offered at a low interest rate and with a repayment grace period, concern has been voiced over requirements that 70 percent of the contracts are awarded to a Chinese contractor without a competitive bidding process, and that the contractor’s profit margins are required to be 20 percent of the contract value.[20] Finally, an amendment to PNG’s Environmental Law was passed in June 2010. The amendment prohibits landowners and third parties affected by developments from suing developers and/or the government over environmental damages. In the time since the amendment passed, Madang has become the epicenter of protest against the Environmental Law, heightening local level concern over new developments, including the PMIZ. This culminated in late June 2010 when thousands protested against the amendment in Madang, despite warning from the Attorney General not to discuss or comment on the law.[21]

In the mean time, tuna processing investments have advanced in Lae, the home of the already operational Frabelle Fishing Corporation. After a long battle with land owners, in June 2010, Majestic Seafood, a joint venture among Frabelle Fishing Corporation (Philippines), Century Canning (Philippines) and canning giant Thai Union (Thailand), broke ground on a new facility. The facility is slated to have a processing capacity of 350mt/day, generating  up to 6,000 jobs. The US$30million investment will begin with a processing capacity of 130mt/day.[22] The International Fisheries Corporation, a mackerel canning firm in Lae, has also indicated that it will begin to add tuna processing to its repertoire in 2010. Fish are to be supplied by Frabelle’s domestic fleet and the firm plans to expand from 40mt/day to 120mt/day with a target start date in 2010. Likewise, Chinese firm Zhoushan Zhenyang Deep Sea Fishing Company has expressed interest in building a plant with processing capacity of 25-300mt/day in Lae. The firm has signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the National Fisheries Authority, though no formal investment has yet been committed.[23]


Fisheries Management and Development

Fisheries outcomes from Ministerial & Pacific Forum Leaders meetings

On 7-8 July 2010, Fisheries Ministers and Senior Officials gathered in Madang, PNG for the Sixth Pacific Islands Forum Fisheries Committee (FFC) Ministerial Meeting.   Discussions centered on the region’s progress in fisheries management and fisheries development as a means of ensuring fisheries sustainability.

Major outcomes from the Ministerial Meeting included:[24]

* Approval of ‘The Future of Pacific Island Fisheries’ for presentation to Pacific Forum Leaders – a report prepared for FFA & SPC which considers the future of fisheries over a 25-year timeframe (2010-2035) and provides a basis for long-term strategic approaches to developing and managing fisheries at national and regional levels.

* Adoption of the Regional Monitoring, Control and Surveillance (MCS) Strategy – strategies and actions for regional cooperation to control illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing in the Pacific Islands. 

* Endorsement of implementation of the Regional Economic Integration in Pacific Tuna Fisheries (REI) Programme – a newly established programme within FFA’s Fisheries Development Division intended to broaden the scope of development services provided to FFA members so as to assist in deriving additional economic returns from their fishery resources.

* Agreement that outcomes from previous meetings concerning the Niue Treaty (a treaty which facilitates cooperation in fisheries surveillance and law enforcement in the South Pacific region) would be progressed at the Pacific Fisheries and Law Enforcement Justice Ministers’ Meeting in Canberra (12-13 July).

* Appointment of Mr. James Movick (FSM) to the position of FFA Deputy-Director General.

At the Forty-First Pacific Islands Forum held in Port Vila, Vanuatu on 4-5 August 2010, Pacific Regional Leaders endorsed the Regional MCS Strategy and implementation of the REI Programme. They also welcomed a joint presentation from the Director-Generals of FFA & SPC on ‘The Future of Pacific Island Fisheries’ report.  Leaders further endorsed the negotiation of a region-wide Niue Treaty Subsidiary Agreement to be concluded by the end of 2012.  The collaborative work of FFA, SPC and, more recently, the Parties to the Nauru Agreement (PNA) in strengthening regional approaches for fisheries conservation and management was commended. [25]  

Options for optimising fisheries commercialisation as a means of increasing fisheries revenue beyond licencing fees were also discussed. Leaders tasked FFA and SPC to further explore options and present these in a report to the upcoming Forum Economic Ministers Meeting (FEMM) 2010. 


US and Pacific island countries continue negotiations for 2013 US Treaty renewal

The US Treaty, a multilateral fisheries agreement between the United States and the 16 Pacific Island Parties (PIPs), offers 45 licenses to US-flagged purse seine vessels to fish in PIP waters. Pacific Island Parties and the US delegation are meeting regularly to negotiate renewal of the Treaty, which is set to expire in 2013. Both parties have expressed strong interest in the continuation of the Treaty.

At the top of the list of negotiating issues is how the Vessel Day Scheme and the terms of the US Treaty interact. The earliest allocation of US vessel days was based on a seven-year average of days fished annually by US Treaty vessels.[26] However, since 2007, the US fleet has grown from ~10 vessels, to 37 vessels, increasing US demand for a capped total number of vessel days. According to industry and government officials, PIPs and the US are working together to clarify the Vessel Day Scheme and how it will apply to the US vessels.

Also part of the negotiating agenda is the Pacific Island Parties’ request that an element of access to the US market for tuna products be included in the next version of the US Treaty. However, the US generally does not offer market access on a product-by-product basis, and any market access negotiation is likely to have to go through the United States Trade Representative as part of a larger free trade agreement, or to be an Act of Congress, such as was the case for the Andean Trade Preference Act, which grants duty free access for a range of products including tuna in pouches. In short, it is unlikely that market access for tuna products will be included directly in the US Treaty, though market access could be negotiated through other venues.

In addition to these issues, Pacific Island Parties and the US have agreed on a proposed budget for 20 percent observer coverage by the FFA Regional Observer Programme for the 15 June 2010-14 June 2011 licensing period. They are also developing a Memorandum of Understanding relating to the possible use of Pacific Island Parties’ national observer programmes to assist the US in meeting their obligation under the WCPFC for an additional 80 percent coverage in the fleet. The MOU is to include a package of all costs of observer programme support and infrastructure, including the provision of assistance to Pacific Island Parties national observer programmes.[27] US industry representatives have expressed concern over the availability of Pacific island observers and the logistics and costs associated with employing them on board vessels.[28]


Tuna Markets

MW Brands bought by Thai Union

At the end of July Thai Union Frozen Products (TUF) bought the European canned seafood giant MW Brands from Trilantic Capital Partners. (Trilantic was formed in 2009 by the former principals of Lehman Brothers Merchant Banking.[29]) MW Brands managed the canned fish brands John West (number one in canned tuna in the UK), Petit Naivre (number one in France) and Mareblu (third in Italy). The sale includes four processing plants in France, Portugal, Seychelles and Ghana, which TUF adds to its existing five processing facilities in Thailand, Indonesia, Vietnam and the USA.[30] It also includes five purse seines (flagged by Ghana), which TUF adds to its existing fleet. Given that TUF was already one of the largest packers of private label canned tuna in the world and owns Chicken of the Sea (one of the ‘big three’ national brands in the US), this sale makes the Thai firm the most important canned tuna firm in the world. The firm’s market power in negotiations with raw material suppliers will be significantly enhanced.

TUF bought MW Brands for €680 million. Back in February 2006 Heinz European Seafood had been purchased by Lehman Brothers Merchant Banking for €425 million.[31] MW Brands was created to manage the former Heinz business. It was known from the outset that the (then) Lehman Brothers investment tranche was set to mature in 2010 or 2011 and MW Brands would be sold on. Thus MW Brands’ central strategy was to increase its market share in core EU markets within four or five years. The €255 million increase in sales value between 2006 and 2010 indicates that this strategy was a success.[32] Another indicator is MW Brands’ EBITDA (earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization) margin which was 16.9 percent in 2009. This compares to an EBITDA margin of only 8.6 percent for TUF.[33] The difference is due to MW Brand’s sale of more ‘value-added’ products in Western Europe.


Soltai recommences operations

Soltai Fishing and Processing Limited resumed production in Noro, Solomon Islands in late July after processing operations were suspended for four months.  Soltai temporarily closed in March when the company was unable to purchase packaging materials due to financial constraints.[34] 

Soltai has recommenced operations as Solomon Islands’ National Provident Fund (NPF) and Tri Marine International have each agreed to loan the company SBD $50 million to counter Soltai’s current cash flow issues.  The SBD $100 million (USD $13.7 million) working capital injection will be used, in part, to repay a problematic loan with the ANZ Bank, under which Soltai is paying over 20 per cent interest and the loan is secured by the lender with a first preferred mortgage on Soltai’s assets.[35]   Loan funds from NPF & Tri Marine will also be used to invest in new machinery, equipment and buildings required for a planned increase in Soltai’s production level. [36]

The loan provided by Tri Marine to Soltai indicates that ongoing issues concerning the shareholding of the company have likely been resolved.  Soltai is owned by the Solomon Islands National Government (51%) and the Western Province Government (49%).  Given the financial constraints of the shareholders in making the necessary capital investments to keep Soltai afloat, Solomon Islands Government invited Tri Marine to enter into the shareholding and participate in the financial restructuring of Soltai.  However, the Western Province was reluctant to agree as its shareholding would be reduced to 10 percent under the proposed new arrangement.[37]  It is anticipated that the new agreement will be finalised and signed within the next month.


American Samoa update – Starkist and Chicken of the Sea

As reported in the May-June 2010 edition of Fisheries Trade News, Starkist intends to eliminate 600-800 positions from its American Samoa-based processing facility, due to increased global competitive pressures.  Starkist has commenced issuing redundancy notices and the first group of 300 workers to lose their positions will cease employment on 28 August, followed by a second group in the following month.[38]    

Starkist is reportedly investigating alternative locations for operations and high level discussions are being held between Starkist and the Samoan Government concerning the possibility of establishing a loining facility in neighbouring Samoa in Asau, Savaii.  The proposed plant would employ up to 1,200 workers and supply cooked loins to Starkist’s Pago-Pago site for canning.[39] 

A major benefit of establishing an operation in Samoa is more competitive wage rates, since Samoa is not subject to the same minimum wage regulations as American Samoa.  Also, the majority of workers employed by Starkist and COS in Pago Pago are already Samoan nationals and a large number of these workers have been forced to return home since losing their jobs in American Samoa.  Hence, a readily available and trained workforce exists.

However, establishing a facility at the proposed site of Asau would not be without its challenges, particularly in terms of meeting infrastructure needs.  The Samoan Government is currently appraising the infrastructure demands of the proposed project.[40]  In 2007, FFA (DEVFISH) commissioned a study to investigate the feasibility of establishing a tuna port at Asau to service longline tuna vessels.[41]  While the establishment of a tuna loining facility was outside the scope of the study, existing infrastructure in Asau was assessed.  The study concluded that while Asau has an already established wharf and well-protected deep water harbour, the port entry channel requires dredging and navigational beacons need to be installed.  The land base has an existing electricity supply, but there is no provision for reefer container storage, which means that electricity infrastructure would be inadequate to meet the needs of a loining plant.  The water supply to the site is poor and irregular. 

Tri Marine is currently negotiating an agreement for the purchase of Thai Union’s Chicken of the Sea plant in Pago Pago, with plans to recommence tuna processing operations.   The purchase is reportedly hinging on Tri Marine securing a long term ground lease (and other agreements) with the American Samoa Government, since COSI has only three years remaining on the land lease.[42]  Tri Marine officials have clearly indicated that it is not the company’s intention to replicate Chicken of the Sea’s former business model, given the difficulties encountered by both Chicken of the Sea and Starkist in operating globally competitive tuna processing facilities. 

In September 2009, Thai Union closed down this plant and relocated operations to Georgia, United States.  Since a majority of the processing equipment was transferred to the Georgia plant, significant investment will be required to restore the plant to a functioning tuna processing facility.  The remaining assets include the plant buildings, cold storage facility and shipping dock.[43]  


Coming in the next issue (September 2010, Vol. 3: Issue 9)

* Private equity and the seafood industry

* Frabelle to establish processing facility in Solomon Islands

* India’s seafood exporters face economic and regulatory challenges


1 Prepared for the FFA Fisheries Development Division by Liam Campling, Consultant Fisheries Trade Analyst, FFA, Elizabeth Havice, Colorado College, and Amanda Hamilton, independent consultant. Desktop publishing by Antony Price. The authors would like to thank Hugh Walton for his input on an earlier draft of this briefing. The contents of this briefing (including all analysis and opinions) are the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the positions or thinking of the FFA Secretariat or its Members.

2 For a recent overview, see Aniol Esteban and Rupert Crilly (2010), Fish dependence: The increasing reliance of the ERU on fish from elsewhere, London: New Economic Foundation. Available at: www.neweconomics.org

3 2009/2238(INI), 03.5.2010, Draft Report on the system of fishery and aquaculture imports into the EU in the light of the proposed reform of the CFP, European Parliament Committee on Fisheries. Rapporteur: Alain Cadec. Available at: http://www.europarl.europa.eu. Cadec is a member of the European People's Party (Christian Democrats) which is the largest grouping of MEPs in the European Parliament (see http://www.epp.eu). He represents the coastal region of Saint Brieuc in Brittany (Breton). The Brittany region is the home base for most of the French tropical tuna industry.

4 Personal communication, 11 May 2010.

5 European Parliament, Press release ‘Fisheries: fair competition needed between imports and European Producers’, 23 June 2010. Available at: http://www.europarl.europa.eu

6 That is, under negotiations in the Doha Round on non-agricultural market access (NAMA). European Parliament resolution of 8 July 2010 on the arrangements for importing fishery and aquaculture products into the EU with a view to the future reform of the CFP, P7_TA(2010)0287 of 8 July 2010, Article 15. Available at: http://www.europarl.europa.eu

7 European Parliament Resolution P7_TA(2010)0287 of 8 July 2010, Article 35 (emphases added). See also, European Parliament, Press release ‘MEPs call for fair and transparent trade in fish’, 8 July 2010. Available at: http://www.europarl.europa.eu ; and, ‘Pure free trade not suitable for fisheries – MEPs’, Fishupdate.com, 23 July, 2010. Available at: http://www.fishupdate.com

8 ‘Market operators call on the EP for realist approach to the market’, AIPCE-CEP Press Release, 9 July 2010 Available at: http://aipce-cep.org/ . See also, ‘EU fish processors denounce tighter import plans’, Intrafish Media, 12 July 2010; and, Drew Cherry, ‘Who's afraid of the big bad import?’, Intrafish Media, 15 July 2010. Both available at: http://www.intrafish.no

9 ‘Anfaco seeks protection from Thai canned tuna’, SeaFood Business, 21 July 2010. Available at: http://www.seafoodsource.com

10 Congressman Faleomavaega’s Office, Washington DC, Press Release: ‘Faleomavaega thanks Starkist for not closing operations in American Samoa and assures workers that U.S. Department of Labor is on stand-by to review ASG application for national emergency grant funds’, 18 May 2010. Available at: http://www.house.gov/faleomavaega/

11 For prior related pressures, see ‘PNG signs Interim Economic Partnership Agreement, Spanish Industry attempted to scupper global sourcing rules of origin’, FFA Fisheries Trade News, August 2009, 2(8). Available at: http://www.ffa.int/trade_news , see also LDRAC, ‘Opinion of the Long Distance Fleet Regional Advisory Council (LDRAC) regarding the concession made to Pacific ACP Countries’, Adopted by the LDRAC Executive Committee (R-04-09/WG5), 16 Octobver 2009. Available at: http://www.ldrac.eu/

12 LDRAC, ‘Draft LDRAC Recommendation About Papua New Guinea and Fiji’, R-07-09/WG5. Adopted by Executive Committee in June 2010.

13 European Parliament Resolution P7_TA(2010)0287 of 8 July 2010, Article 20

14 Natalia Freitas, ‘Interview: PNG Aims to Process 100% of its 700.000 M/T of Tuna’, Atuna.com, 28 July 2010. Available at: http://www.atuna.com

15 Natalia Freitas, ‘Interview: PNG aims to process 100% of its 700,000m/t of tuna’. Atuna, 28 July 2010. Available at: http://www.atuna.com 

16 ‘IFC helps Papua New Guinea develop Economic Zone strategy to promote growth’, IFC East Asia and Pacific Press Release. 3 June 2009. Available at: http://www.ifc.org

17 Personal communication, IFC official, August 2010.

18 John Pangkatana, ‘US firm gives trade report’, Post Courrier, 11 June 2010. Available at: http://www.postcourier.com.pg/

19 Personal communication, PNG industry and government officials, August 2010.

20 Patrick Matbob, ‘New Chinese investor to develop PMIZ, but scant details about company’, Islands Business, no date. Available at: http://www.islandsbusiness.com

21 Firmin Nanol, ‘PNG environmental law protesters defy AG warning’, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 1 July 2010. Available at: http://www.radioaustralia.net; Firmin Nanol, ‘Thousands protest against PNG environmental law’, Australia Network News, 1 July 2010. Available at: http://www.australianewtorknews.com 

22 Franco Nebas, ‘K80million from cannery project’, Post-Courier, 10 June 2010. Available at: http://www.postcourier.com.pg/ ; ‘Getting more from tuna resources’, Sunday Chronicle, 13 June 2010. Available at: http://www.sunday-chronicle.com

23 Personal communication, PNG industry and government officials, June 2010.

24 Anouk Ride (2010) Outcomes from Ministerial Meeting about fisheries, FFA Media Release, 14 July 2010. Available at:  http://www.ffa.int/node/380

25 Pacific Islands Forum (2010) Forty-First Pacific Islands Forum Communique, 5 August 2010.  Available at: http://pidp.eastwestcenter.org

26 Steven Shanks, ‘Introducing a transferable fishing day management regime for Pacific island countries’, Marine Policy, 34 (5): 988-94, September 2010.

27 ‘Outcomes from Pacific Island Parties – US Consultation’, FFA Press Release, 29 March 2010. Available at: http://www.ffa.int

28 Personal communication, US industry officials, July 2010.

29 More information on this firm is available at: http://www.trilanticpartners.com/

30 TUF Press Release ‘Thai Union Frozen products board of directors approves acquisition of MW brands from trilantic capital partners’, 28 July 2010. Available at: http://www.thaiuniongroup.com

31 In combination with other private institutional investors and five former Heinz employees (multiple interviews, EU, US and Thai industry representatives, 2006); Lehman Brothers Press Release, ‘Lehman Brothers Merchant Banking Agrees to Acquire Heinz’s European Seafood Business for €425 Million’, 21 February 2006.

32 Note that the assets of MW Brands changed over time, including its sale of 36% shares in the French purse seine firm Cobrecaf in late 2008, and its purchase of two purse seines in 2008 and sale of two small boats to buy one larger one in 2009. See CREFMPM (2008), ‘Armement - Paul Paulet quitte la Cobrecaf’, 24 October 2008. Available at: http://www.crefmpm.com; and, http://www.mwbrands.com/fleet

33 Natalia Real, ‘TUF goes after French seafood canner’, FIS, 16 June 2010. Available at: http://www.fis.com

34 Solomon Star (2010) ‘Soltai resumes with 25 tonnes of tuna’, 22 August 2010.  Available at: http://www.solomonstarnews.com

35 Natalie Freitas (2010)’ TriMarine Bold Plans for the Canning Tuna Industry’. Interview with Renato Curto, CEO – Trimarine, Atuna, 15 June 2010.  Available at:  http://www.atuna.com

36 Islands Business (2010) Soltai resumes production, 21 July 2010.  Available at: http://www.islandsbusiness.com

37 Solomon Star (2010) ‘Soltai Cannery Now One Month Without Filling One Can’, Atuna. 17 June 2010. Available at:  http://www.atuna.com

38 Radio NZ (2010) ‘Redundancies at Starkist Samoa Cannery Begin’. 1 July 2010. Atuna. Available at: http://www.atuna.com

39 Natalia Real (2010) ‘New tuna loining plant in the works:  StarKist’. 18 August 2010.  Fish Information & Services.  Available at:  http://www.fis.com

40 Natalia Real (2010)